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#21 vulnera

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Posted 17 March 2007 - 08:20 PM

jamul is within a few miles of where i live...


Jacob on Jamul
Supervisor Dianne Jacob spoke out this afternoon against the construction at the Jamul Indian Village, admonishing the tribe for breaking its promise that two tribal dissidents' homes would be left alone until Friday.

The homes of casino opponents Karen Toggery and Walter Rosales were torn down yesterday.

"That was wrong, certainly without conscience," Jacob said. "It was shameful what happened."

Jamul tribal chairman Leon Acebedo told me yesterday that he'd warned opponents that he didn't have the authority to make such an agreement, that his 51-member tribe's executive council could overrule him. They unanimously did Monday morning.

Jacob said that no such warning was given Saturday, when the agreement helped diffuse a tense standoff between tribal security and casino opponents. The agreement, which Acebedo signed, said the tribal council would meet Monday to "affirm" the d´etente.

In an interview today, Acebedo said that he, in fact, had not told opponents that he could be overturned.

"I was very aware that I could be overridden," he said. "I didn’t talk to them (the opponents) about it. I just wrote what was requested of me."

Jacob suggested that the homes were demolished so the publicly traded Lakes Gaming, which is backing the casino's construction and development, could show its investors progress in its third-quarter financial statement due out soon.

Acebedo said that was not the case. "The homes were demolished so that we can continue to make progress," he said. "It has nothing to do with what Lakes' bottom line is."

The state of California could be the last recourse for opponents. Jacob said the tribe needs a state-issued encroachment permit to access the serpentine Highway 94. Such a permit would require a formal environmental impact review under the California Environmental Quality Act, Jacob said.

Acebedo said the tribe needs that permit to improve its existing access to Highway 94 but said the casino could be accessed by an existing driveway without more permits. CalTrans has been stalling the process, Acebedo said, and had not returned phone calls to set up meetings.


photos of the "action"

the bottom line, and official report:


The latest report filed with the SEC says:

There has been some local opposition regarding the project, although no formal legal action has been taken.

The report outlines the casino's expected shift to bingo-style slot machines, which do not require state approval. The tribe had wanted to provide 2,000 Vegas-style slot machines along with the table games such as blackjack found in Las Vegas casinos. Tribal chairman Leon Acebedo said earlier this week that the tribe had shelved plans for those games and instead would offer bingo-style slots.

The financial report concludes:

We believe this project will be successfully completed.



Jamul Homes Flattened to Clear Casino's Path
By ROB DAVIS Voice Staff Writer

Tuesday, March 13, 2007 | The man with the mustache and tan uniform standing behind the counter was no assistance to Karen Toggery on Monday afternoon.

With yellow construction equipment flattening her empty home 12 miles away in Jamul, Toggery turned to the San Diego County Sheriff's Department in a last-ditch attempt for help. They offered none; the casino is being built on a federally recognized reservation -- sovereign land.

Toggery spent a frustrating afternoon trying keep the bulldozers from clearing her home away for a $350-million, 12-story casino. She failed. After years of delays, the Jamul tribe followed through on its plans to demolish the homes of Toggery and Walter Rosales, who lived on the reservation but are not members of the legally recognized tribe.

In doing so, the Jamul tribe reversed course on promises its chairman gave to casino protestors over the weekend. At a Saturday standoff where casino opponents were clubbed and pepper sprayed, tribal chairman Leon Acebedo helped resolve the confrontation by assuring opponents that no construction would happen until Friday.

But Monday morning, the Jamul tribe's executive council unanimously rejected the temporary reprieve offered by Acebedo, who said he warned opponents Saturday that he didn't have the authority to issue such a delay.

With the dètente canceled, demolition began quickly. Toggery's home was torn down first; the wood-sided home of Rosales, a life-long resident of the Jamul Indian Village and casino opponent, came down soon after. And with it went a sign that read: Jamul, Love it Or Leave It.

In all, four homes were torn down, Acebedo said.

"They're all gone," he said. "They're all leveled out. They're being loaded on to a Dumpster."

Toggery, 52, who was forced out of her house Saturday, relied on updates from neighbors to hear whether her home had been demolished. Prohibited from entering the property where she was lived since her childhood, she began looking elsewhere Monday for someone to help intervene. Her first stop was the county sheriff's substation in Lemon Grove. She emerged in early afternoon frustrated, talking on her cell phone.

"He said that don't matter," she was saying. "He said it's not their jurisdiction. There's nothing he can do."

Toggery and Rosales, 59, have protested that the casino would destroy burial sites they consider sacred. They say their relatives' ashes are spread around their homes. Eviction notices issued by an intertribal court had been taped to their doors Feb. 24, promising they'd be removed from their homes within five days. Jamul tribal security officers arrived at their homes at 7:15 a.m. Saturday and escorted them out.

Though the homes have been demolished, full construction is not starting yet. Acebedo said planning and architectural work still need to be done. Asked why the homes were torn down if construction wasn't ready to advance, Acebedo said the demolishing was "an important step we needed to get done."

"Why now? My tribal members are very tired of the delays, they're very tired of waiting," he said. "We've been in legal fights for 15 years. Now they're pressing me to get it done."

The Jamul tribe has broken off its negotiations with the state, Acebedo said. Those would've required the tribe to demonstrate that it had made a "good faith effort" to mitigate the casino's impacts. Instead, the casino will use a type of gaming machine that replicates bingo games and doesn't fall under state regulatory control. Games such as blackjack, roulette or typical slot machines would be prohibited.

Acebedo said he expects the machines to be less profitable. "That's a given," he said. "It'll just be a matter of doing the best marketing job we can to get customers in."

Patrick Webb, the Jamul attorney representing Toggery and Rosales, said he is seeking a temporary restraining order from a federal judge in Washington, D.C., where the duo has a lawsuit pending under the federal Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. A hearing was also scheduled Tuesday morning in San Diego Superior Court seeking a similar action under California law.

"I think it's down to the wire for everybody," Webb said. "We have yet to decide what's putting the pressure on them to do this. We can only assume it's coming from Lakes Gaming, which has the money up."

Lakes Gaming is the Minnesota-based company fronting the money and planning expertise to help the 51-member Jamul tribe build its casino.

Other residents have already moved. At its peak, Toggery estimated 40 people lived in 17 homes on the 6.2-acre Jamul site.

Sitting outside the Lemon Grove sheriff's substation, Toggery said she is living temporarily with a neighbor, while her belongings sit in storage. She was coming to grips with her home's destruction, but did not appear distraught. She pledged to continue fighting the casino.

"You can't sit here and cry, it's not going to help," she said. "I'm not going to give up, if that's what they think. Land is the most precious thing you can have."


pbs news video here (sorry you have to suffer thru a carol lam & esconidio police vs illegal immigrants story first)

some letters to the editor:

#22 Alexander


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Posted 25 March 2007 - 02:53 PM

Snowbowl ruling is a benefit to land
Mar. 25, 2007 12:00 AM

Many of us who live in Flagstaff were incredibly disappointed by your editorial on Wednesday, "Appeal the snow job."

We do not want to be the human guinea pigs for the first experiment in making artificial snow from 100 percent reclaimed water. Other ski resorts use a high percentage of fresh water when making artificial snow, and are not necessarily so dependent on fake snow.

Our marvelous Arizona Department of Environmental Quality does not even regulate the personal-care product and pharmaceutical chemicals that are still in the wastewater after the treatment process. European countries are much farther along than we are in regulating and even banning such chemicals as triclosan.

The 9th Circuit Court of Appeals was correct in pointing out that the Forest Service had not done research on the effect on children ingesting this chemical soup from the snow. The first rule should still be "do no harm."

I do not know a single Arizona official who is willing to drink this wonderful A-plus reclaimed water containing endocrine disruptors, musks and even dioxins. We think the rights of all of us who live here and value our health and the health of the ecosystem should be treated with respect.

Skiers can always go to Utah or Colorado, but we only have this one chance to pull together as a community to protect our mountains for all of us, not further mutilate this fragile land for a possibly unsustainable sport. - Bonnie Johnson,Flagstaff

Peaks ruling was good for Arizona from health, religious standpoint
Special for

The Republic
Mar. 25, 2007 12:00 AM

Clean water and public lands for the common good were reaffirmed by the recent 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals' decision on the San Francisco Peaks.

These mountains are federal public land entrusted to the U.S. Forest Service to manage on our behalf. Arizona Snowbowl, a private for-profit company, holds a temporary permit to operate a ski area on this land we all own.

The Snowbowl had proposed using treated sewage water to spray on the slopes of the ski runs to make more snow, something that has never been done since the ski area opened in 1938. According to the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, this wastewater can be used for watering golf courses, washing cars and flushing toilets, but it's not clean enough for direct human contact. advertisement

In fact, Arizona law prohibits using this wastewater "with a potential for ingestion," and users must employ "application methods that reasonably preclude human contact."

The Forest Service claimed that simply posting warning signs would be enough to keep kids from eating the snow and to prevent skiers from falling into it as they swooshed down the slopes. Not too realistic.

Further, analysis by Paul Torrence, a Northern Arizona University biochemist, showed that certain household chemicals remaining in the treated wastewater could turn toxic under exposure to ultraviolet radiation, such as long days of sunshine at high altitude on the ski slopes. This could create carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, such as dioxin, which could percolate into the watershed.

The Forest Service, in approving the Snowbowl proposal, simply did not look at the current information about risk to human health and additional methods of treating the wastewater. The law says it should have done so, and so did the 9th Circuit.

The Snowbowl's general manager testified in court that no other ski area in the country makes its artificial snow exclusively from undiluted sewage effluent, as the resort was planning to do.

To conservation groups like the Sierra Club and others, public health concerns were reason enough to challenge the spraying of unhealthful water onto the community watershed. For the members of 13 tribes that consider the San Francisco Peaks a supremely sacred place, it was a cultural stab in the gut to imagine wastewater spread across a holy landscape and, for many, the site of first creation.

That is why the Navajo Nation, Hopi Tribe, Hualapai Tribe, Havasupai Tribe, Yavapai-Apache Nation and White Mountain Apache Nation all formally filed suit against this proposal, too.

The Snowbowl's snowmaking proposal was meant to sell more lift tickets by artificially extending the ski season. But they cannot overcome drought and the predicted effects of long-term climate change due to global warming.

Just last week, federal climate scientists repeated warnings that Arizona and the rest of the Southwest are in for an extended dry period. Is the best use of scarce water in the fastest-growing state in the country to spray it on a ski slope? And artificial snow will melt as quickly as the real stuff with rising temperatures.

The ski area has changed ownership multiple times since it began. But our northern Arizona communities need to live together over the long haul. The peaks should be a place for people to come together and to pass on to future generations unimpaired. If we can't protect this place for everyone, then what special place is good enough?

The 9th Circuit decided in favor of the highest public use for the greatest number, and for a healthful environment, a very mainstream view and one supported by decades of law. It's a good decision for Arizona and the nation.

" It makes absolutely no difference
what people think of you."
Rumi, 'We Are Three', Mathnawi VI, 831-845

"Just as a candle cannot burn without fire, men cannot live without a spiritual life. "

The avatar you see is a photo of the stone Celtic cross at The Iona Abbey on the isle of Iona Scotland. It has stood for over 1,200 years.

#23 vulnera

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Posted 27 March 2007 - 04:59 PM

for freaking frack's sake!!!! theyre on the unesco world heritage protected list!!!!!

*v slaps whoever is responsible


not sure if any of you are familiar with the chaco area... but its one of my favorite and absolutely breathtaking archeo/sacred sites ive ever visited. in league with any of the pyramids, stonehenge, angkor wat, or macchu picchu (im sure). interestingly, i just received a letter that they will be drastically cutting back camping/hiking this summer... why? ive been wondering, but now it seems its to build frigging gas drills by the godddam,n visitor center!!!! within view of the sun-dagger for f'ing crying out loud (fajada butte) one of the sacredEST spots there!!! it just has the misfortune to be the gatekeeper of the chaco canyon system... a giant sundial, if you will in a vast plain leading to this sacred canyon systems and thus is only a mile from public lands, and within full view of the proposed site!!!


today in the damn news, look what i freaking find!!!!:mad: seriously... as you approach withing 20-30 miles from this place along a very long bumpy dirt road to discourage tourists -all your hair stands on end...! the place is literally crawling with energy!!! sacred sacred sacred!!! WTF!!!!??

9:24 am: Natural gas wells planned for Chaco area

March 27, 2007

ALBUQUERQUE (AP) _ The state Land Office has put on hold drilling leases for a Colorado company that plans two natural gas wells south of the Chaco Canyon visitor center in northwest New Mexico.

The Land Office initially approved the leases, but received about a dozen phone calls from people concerned about the drilling, the Albuquerque Journal reported Tuesday in a copyright story.

Now, the leases are on hold while the Land Office's archaeologist reviews possible impacts, said spokeswoman Kristen Haase.

''We want to be circumspect about anything having to do with Chaco Canyon,'' she said.

Denver-based Cimarex Energy Co. did not return phone calls seeking comment about the company's proposal.

Chaco Canyon, a major center of Puebloan Indian culture between A.D. 850 and 1250, is a World Heritage Site and a beloved destination for campers, photographers and history buffs.

The proposed gas wells would be about a mile south of the park's boundary and a mile from Fajada Butte, where light and shadows track the cycles of the sun and moon.

''We're just extraordinarily concerned,'' said Mike Eisenfeld of the San Juan Citizens Alliance, which is organizing opposition to the wells. ''Our group is saying, 'Is there nothing sacred?'''

Russ Bodnar, Chaco's chief of interpretation, said park officials are concerned, especially if the wells are visible from sites popular with visitors. He also said officials are worried about how the park's night sky programs will be affected.

John Bemis, the Land Office's assistant commissioner for oil, gas and minerals, said the wells would be large, lighted and visible during the drilling stage _ about two to four weeks.

Once the well begins operating, it will consist of a series of steel pipes about four feet off the ground and possibly a storage tank up to 15 feet tall, Bemis said.

Land Office archaeologist David Eck plans to submit an assessment to the state Office of Historic Preservation by the end of the week. That office will review the leases for effects they may have on cultural resources, Eck said.

''We're not out to destroy the universe,'' Eck said. ''We're here to make money. And if we can do that with minimal impact, that's my job.''

Bemis said the goal of the Land Office is to make money from the land it holds in trust by approving leases for mineral extraction. Royalties from trust land support public education.


#24 vulnera

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Posted 13 April 2007 - 05:07 PM


New rule may help Native American tribes reclaim artifacts
Kevin Livelli
Columbia News Service
Apr. 12, 2007 08:58 AM

It's been nearly a dozen years since museums and federal agencies had to notify American Indian tribes about artifacts in their collections that might have been stolen from or lost by the tribes. But a new federal regulation may make it easier for the tribes to identify such objects.

It was a hot and arid day in Pecos, N.M., when the elders and leaders of the Jemez Pueblo tribe welcomed an outsider into the fold: archaeologist William Whatley.

Wearing colorful headbands, the old men sat down on the ground with Whatley. Then they began drawing images in the dust--images of bones, masks and pottery that had gone missing or been looted from the tribe. The elders implored Whatley to use his scientific knowledge to find the objects and help return them to the tribe. Not an easy task.

That was nearly 20 years ago. Now, for other tribes searching for lost or stolen items, the process may get a lot easier.

In mid-March, the Department of the Interior's National NAGPRA program, which helps carry out the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, announced a regulation requiring museums, universities and federal agencies in possession of Native American art and artifacts to provide new lists of their inventories and to share them with all federally recognized tribes within six months.

The rule, which takes effect April 20, marks the first time in a dozen years that museums and federal agencies have had to share with tribes what's in their collections. This process may uncover many items missing for years, and it may make encourage tribes to start making repatriation claims to get their artifacts back.

Repatriation is a process frequently fraught with tension between museums and tribes. Curators and scholars have an interest in preserving items for their educational and research value. For the tribes, reclaiming their objects can have a spiritual and cultural significance. But for some, it can lead to big business. A reclaimed object can establish a tribe's right to land, which it might want to develop--sometimes into a casino.

"This promises to have a big impact for many tribes, especially those recently recognized by the federal government," said Dr. Rayna Green, a Cherokee and the curator and director of the American Indian program at the Smithsonian Institution. "And it's not just about cultural heritage. It's about money and land and property. This is America, after all."

Yet even if the new rule helps tribes find many sacred objects, it won't necessarily help them overcome the many obstacles inherent in the repatriation process.

"Tribes and museums approach decisions about sacred objects carefully," said Dr. Timothy McKeown, the senior program coordinator at the NAGPRA office and the man responsible for overseeing the entire repatriation process. "Repatriation is not just something you can do overnight."

To begin with, tribes can struggle with issues of confidentiality when filing a claim. Many tribes, especially the Pueblo groups in the Southwest, have strict customs and rules about sharing tribal information with outsiders. Yet the law requires a tribe to reasonably establish its historical connection to a particular object.

The Pueblo Indians of San Eldefanso made a claim in the mid-1990s but backed away when a dispute over the claim led to litigation in federal court. They didn't want to have to testify and reveal tribal secrets.

Even putting together the claim can be a challenge. In many instances, a tribe's spoken language--like that of the Jemez Pueblo--isn't written down and can't be easily transferred into the legalese necessary to file a claim. And hiring lawyers costs money, something many smaller tribes lack.

When claims are readied for filing, McKeown says tribes sometimes argue among themselves and with neighboring tribes over who has the right to proceed with that claim, who should act as spokesman and who will be responsible for the objects once they return.

One such case currently under review by McKeown's office involves funerary objects and human remains that were recently found in Chaco Canyon National Park in New Mexico. Representatives from Pueblo, Navajo and Hopi tribes have all made competing claims for the same objects.

The tribes' competing claims can stir feuds that go back hundreds of years. "It has to do with very old notions of clan and kinship and philosophical and religious ideas about death and the afterlife," Green said.

"The issue is important because what you and I call artifacts are in their worlds living tribal members with the same rights as people," Whatley said.

Once objects are successfully returned to tribes, one serious issue frequently remains. Many of the items belonging to tribes in the Iroquois Six Nations and the Hopi Nation are perishable--cornhusk masks or headdresses with feathers. When these items come into a museum's collection, they are often sprayed with arsenic or another pesticide for preservation.

But upon return, the masks and headdresses are often worn in ceremonies, endangering the lives of tribal members and leaving the museum potentially liable for any resulting injury or illness.

"That's something we in the museum world are trying to remedy," Green said. "We're looking now into alternative means of preservation, like flash freezing objects."

Though the path to repatriation may take many years, Whatley says the end result will be worth the trouble for tribes. Over nine years, he has helped return thousands of objects to the Pueblo Jemez from museums around the country.

Back in dusty Pecos, thousands of Indians gathered in 1999 to welcome home their "tribal members." Museum curators and staff were on hand too, watching from a respectful distance.

Whatley, however, was by then a special guest of the tribe and had special access. He said he felt something that day that transcended science, money, land and all his pre-existing notions about Native American culture.

The experience, he said, has stayed with him and opened his eyes to a new way of looking at life.

"There's a lot more to this on the spiritual side than many non-Indians realize," he said.


#25 Jenfucius

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Posted 17 April 2007 - 05:52 PM

I'm glad new rules are in place. I especially think grave related artifacts (in particular human remains) should rightfully be returned.

It saddens me that theres a trade in stolen artifacts though. But at least these new rules is a step in the right direction.

#26 Ognamus


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Posted 21 April 2007 - 07:33 PM

See, what we need to do is annex all "native American lands" back into the states. They have no right to sovereignty as long as they use any part of the US, and as long as they are so much weaker. Annex and taxation! Come on everybody!

#27 Bob RSS

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Posted 21 April 2007 - 10:24 PM

From the Wren's nest
It's being called a significant find, Native American remains dating back possibly 11 hundred years. The burial ground was unearthed recently at a construction site on private property in Hamilton Cou

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#28 Bob RSS

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Posted 22 April 2007 - 10:32 AM

From the Wren's nest
They have rarely been on display in the 150 years since being parted from their owners and are languishing in the storerooms of Scottish museums. Now a group of native Canadian Indians are to wage

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#29 Appalachian Crone

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Posted 02 August 2007 - 02:16 AM

5 tribal housing officials charged in embezzlement
By Josh Verges
Argus Leader

Published: August 1, 2007

Five officials at a South Dakota tribal housing agency are accused of conspiring to embezzle thousands of dollars from May 2004 to December 2005.

All five worked for the Crow Creek Housing Authority and were indicted last week in federal court on charges of conspiracy, embezzlement and theft from an Indian tribal organization.

As executive director, prosecutors say Brent Wells directed tribal money to pay his personal mortgage and made other cash withdrawals for personal use.

In addition, Wells and three others allegedly cashed housing authority checks for personal use and accepted reimbursements for trips they never took and computers they never purchased.

The others named in the indictment are occupancy counselor Carla Big Eagle, secretary Terra Thompson and finance officer Alyce McGhee, aka Alyce Shields.

A fifth employee, housing inspector Velsworth Hawk allegedly made fraudulent propane tank sales to the housing agency and accepted payments for plumbing services he never completed.

The total loss is not listed in the indictment, but is under $100,000, U.S. Attorney Marty Jackley said Tuesday.

According to the indictment, the Crow Creek Sioux Tribe established the agency to receive federal grants for updating existing housing and building new homes and promoting safety and security.

Jackley said the criminal charges should "provide a level of accountability for those entrusted with both federal and tribal funds."

All five defendants have pleaded not guilty. Each charge carries a maximum penalty of five years in prison.

I am that Columbine!

#30 Bob RSS

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Posted 11 October 2007 - 09:17 PM

From the Wren's nest
One of my dearest friends walked on recently. His name was David Marshall. He was only 56 years old. David was not widely known outside of his Cherokee and Creek homelands in northeastern Oklahoma, al

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#31 Appalachian Crone

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Posted 14 October 2007 - 01:40 PM

AIM leader Vernon Bellecourt dead at 75
Activist was a prominent critic of American Indian sports monikers

Updated: 3:57 a.m. ET Oct 14, 2007

MINNEAPOLIS - Vernon Bellecourt, who fought against the use of Indian nicknames for sports teams as a longtime leader of the American Indian Movement, has died at age 75.

Bellecourt died Saturday at Abbott Northwestern Hospital of complications from pneumonia, said his brother, Clyde Bellecourt, a founding member of the militant American Indian rights group.

Just before he was put on a respirator, Vernon Bellecourt joked that the CIA had finally gotten him, his brother said.

Read More HERE

I have two comments on this:

1) I regret that it took so long for this bastard to die

2) May GOD rest his soul....because the Great Spirit will spit in his face for what he did to Anna Mae Aquash. I hope he saw her face when his soul passed on.

The only way this could have made my day better is if Clyde croaked with his sorry brother.

I am that Columbine!

#32 vulnera

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Posted 17 February 2009 - 10:41 PM


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It's the stuff of legends: an elite secret society that includes what would become some of the most powerful men of the 20th century allegedly invading the grave of an Apache chief to steal his skull for fraternal rituals. It's also the stuff of a new lawsuit filed Tuesday by descendents of that Apache chief.

On the 100th anniversary of the death of Geronimo, 20 of his blood relatives have asked the courts to force Yale University and the school's secret organization, Skull and Bones, to release his remains for return to his native land and a proper burial.


looks like theres some recent developments to this story.. hopefully the issue will be resolved asap.

#33 vulnera

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Posted 23 March 2009 - 04:23 PM


By April 2008, then-Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff had waived 36 environmental and cultural laws that could otherwise block completion of a triple border fence. Congress granted him this authority in 2005, with the passage of the so-called REAL ID Act.

That amounted to an end run around the National Environmental Policy Act, Native American Graves and Repatriation Act, Indian Religious Freedom Act, National Historic Preservation Act, Archaeological Resources Protection Act and so on, down to the Clean Water Act and Endangered Species Act—laws protecting communities, farms, forests, watersheds, wildlife, antiquities, habitats, migration corridors and cultural resources.

In the interest of national security, the feds claimed eminent domain over state, county, and private lands along the 2,000-mile border with Mexico. That also nullified California’s laws, like the landmark California Environmental Quality Act, which makes disrupting ancient burials or antiquities a criminal act.

Defenders of Wildlife, Sierra Club, Save Our Heritage Organization, and other groups sued the federal government, arguing that the move was unconstitutional—and lost, meaning that the Army Corps of Engineers, which managed fence construction for Customs and Border Protection (CBP), could have obliterated at least two archaeological sites eligible for the U.S. National Register of Historic Places lying among three mesas around Border Field State Park.
But they didn’t, and no one knows about this act of grace—not to mention a nail-biting archaeological coup—because of the politicized nature and urgency of the fence project.

So, how did archaeologists snag a $3-million contract with an otherwise implacable post-9-11 defense machine?
Quietly. Behind the scenes. In secret. With the helpful hand of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and other key players, none of whom was required to care.

Chertoff did say he wanted to honor the spirit of the laws he waived. And that’s the chink in the wall where Therese Muranaka, associate archaeologist for California State Parks’ San Diego Coast District, struck her wedge. She couldn’t bear to see bulldozers wipe out prehistory.

Carmen Lucas, a tribal elder and one of the last surviving members of the Laguna band of Indians, who strongly feels that these villages represent her ancestors, asked Muranaka for help. Lucas wrote a detailed letter in December 2005 to the archaeologist who conducted initial studies at Border Field, copying Muranaka and the Native American Heritage Commission. In it, she urged protection of the sites in and around Border Field and requested that Native Americans and State Parks “monitor all earth-moving activity if and when construction of the border fence begins.” Lucas also filed a legal protest with Homeland Security over the waivers....

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